The main purpose of this article is to assess trends in cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection reported among infants in California neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) during 2005 to 2016.
The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative collects data on all very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight 1,500 g) and acutely ill infants > 1,500 g, representing 92% of NICUs in California. We compared clinical characteristics and length of hospital stay among infants with and without reported CMV infection (CMV positive viral culture or polymerase chain reaction).
During 2005 to 2016, CMV infection was reported in 174 VLBW infants and 145 infants > 1,500 g, or 2.7 (range: 1.5–4.7) and 1.2 (range: 0.8–1.7) per 1,000 infants, respectively (no significant annual trend). Among infants > 1,500 g, 12 (8%) versus 4,928 (4%) of those reported with versus without CMV infection died (p < 0.05). The median hospital stay was significantly longer among infants reported with versus without CMV infection for both VLBW infants (98 vs. 46 days) and infants > 1,500 g (61 vs. 14 days) (p < 0.001).
Reports of CMV infection remained stable over a 12-year period. Although we were not able to assess whether the infection was congenital or postnatal, CMV infection among infants > 1,500 g was associated with increased mortality.