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Population-based trends and underlying risk factors for infant respiratory syncytial virus and bronchiolitis hospitalizations.

CPQCC Publication
TitlePopulation-based trends and underlying risk factors for infant respiratory syncytial virus and bronchiolitis hospitalizations.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsBennett MV, McLaurin K, Ambrose C, Lee HC
JournalPLoS One
Date Published2018
KeywordsBronchiolitis, California, Cohort Studies, Databases, Factual, Gestational Age, Heart Defects, Congenital, Hospitalization, Humans, Infant, Infant, Premature, Lung Diseases, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, Retrospective Studies, Risk Factors

OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen during infancy, with the potential to cause serious disease and mortality in high-risk groups. The objective of this study was to characterize trends of RSV and bronchiolitis hospitalizations in the first year in a population-based cohort and assess differences in trends according to risk status.

METHODS: Using an observational retrospective cohort design, we examined a California population-based dataset of vital statistics linked to hospital discharge data for up to 1 year after birth from 1997-2011. Infants were categorized by medical condition and then by gestational age. Medical conditions of interest included chronic lung disease, certain congenital heart diseases, or others known to affect risk for developing severe bronchiolitis. The primary outcome was hospitalization due to RSV; secondary outcome was hospitalization for unspecified bronchiolitis (UB) not coded as RSV. Annual person-year rates were calculated for infants <12 months of age during January to December of each year.

RESULTS: Of 7,298,401 infants born during the study period, 121,230 (1.7%) had a medical condition associated with risk; these infants experienced 6853 RSV and 6568 UB hospitalizations in the first year. In infants without medical conditions, 96,694 RSV and 69,886 UB hospitalizations occurred. All-cause infant hospitalizations declined over time from 12.2 to 9.3 per 100 person-years. RSV hospitalization rates for infants with medical conditions decreased from 7.6 to 3.4 per 100 person-years, with the largest relative decline in infants with chronic lung disease (12.0 to 5.0 per 100 person-years). For infants without medical conditions, RSV hospitalizations declined from 1.4 to 0.8 per 100 person-years, with greater decreases among preterm infants with earlier gestational age. UB hospitalization rates remained relatively stable across the study years, from 6.2 to 5.4 and 1.0 to 0.8 per 100 person-years for infants with and without medical conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Various interventions may have contributed to observed decreases in RSV hospitalizations from 1998-2011, which were greater in high-risk populations recommended for RSV immunoprophylaxis and not observed with UB. Further efforts to promote evidence-based practice and optimal targeting of appropriate interventions will ensure continued improvement in care for vulnerable infants.

Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID30379957
PubMed Central IDPMC6209180